Hi, since this was seriously driving me crazy for several evenings, I thought I'd share it. Maybe it saves others some trouble.
If you run Ubuntu with the newest NVidia drivers (430.14) and TLD starts up all black, use:
./tld.x86_64 -force-glcore42 -popupwindow -screen-fullscreen 0
Then click your way to settings and change the resolution to a windowed one which fits your screen. Fullscreen won't/can't work for some reason at all and if you ran fullscreen earlier, now you got just a black screen.
Note: the above can be added in Steam too with Properties/Launch Options as: "%command% -force-glcore42 -popupwindow -screen-fullscreen 0" .
With those parameters I was able to change the overall resolution and run as non-fullscreen. I don't know where the settings are stored, but hand-editing the Unity3D prefs files didn't change anything.
Also, the -screen-width/-screen-height command line parameters seem to have no effect; -show-screen-selector also didn't work (I made sure it finds all libs with LD_LIBRARY_PATH).
There are plenty of tips in the internet about SDL2 being the problem, or that LD_LIBRARY_PATH is required or the SDL_DYNAMIC_API is needed, or one has to run 32-bit version instead of the 64-bit version, and so forth and so on, but none of those worked. I guess the problem is in fact the NVidia driver somehow, since I run Steam in an LXC container based off of Ubuntu 14.04 and with the exception of the new NVidia driver userspace that container was otherwise unchanged. The only thing changed on the host side was the 430.14 kernel driver. Also, my other games exhibit similar problems right now and running in a non-fullscreen/window helps.
With only the -screen-fullscreen 0 the initial "wolves are not really psycho killers and this game won't make you Bear Grylls" screen was shown OK but then the "scrolling nightly mountains with sponsors and beautiful music" was all black. No graphics ever appeared after that.
I hope this helps someone else as well, and you can play again this great game. Thank you folks of Hinterland for making this game, I really mean it, it is a masterpiece. (I'd like to see new areas though...)